The rules for negation are much as in English.
- Nek li nek ŝi respondis. – Neither he or she answered.
Vi nek sidas nek rigardas. – You are neither sitting nor looking.
Mi neniam diros al iu. – I shall never tell anyone. (Mi neniam diros al neniu is wrong in Esperanto just as "I shan't never tell no-one" is in English.)
Mem means "self" (myself, yourself, himself etc.) and is used to emphasize the noun or pronoun it follows. (Compare si, reflexive, lesson 4.)
- Mi mem faris tion. – I myself did that, I did that myself.
There are various ways of saying "goodbye" in Esperanto, but the most usual is
- ĝis la revido – literally "until the re-seeing" (Compare English "see you", French "au revoir".)
Alternatively it may be said without the article:
The Prefix ek-
- the beginning of an action, or
- a sudden momentary action.
- ekparoli – to start speaking
- eksilenti – to fall silent
- eksidi – to sit down, to take a seat
- ekridi – to burst out laughing
The Suffix -aĵ
means "thing", a concrete object:
- manĝaĵo – food
- trinkaĵo – drink, beverage
- belaĵo – something beautiful
- sendaĵo – something sent, a missive