The numerals are listed in the appendix. Higher numbers are formed by combining elementary numerals as follows:
- 1 238 – mil du-cent tri-dek ok
- 153 837 – cent kvin-dek tri mil ok-cent tri-dek sep
- Addition: 8 + 3 = 11 – ok plus tri estas dek-unu
- Subtraction: 15 - 6 = 9 – dek-kvin minus ses estas naŭ
Accusative of Motion Towards
Esperanto prepositions are normally followed by the nominative case:
- post mi – after me
- sen ŝi – without her
- en domo – in a house
However, prepositions describing place may be followed by an accusative to show motion toward, e.g.
- Mi iras en la domon. – I am going into the house.
- (Compare: Ili manĝas en la domo. – They are eating in the house.)
- La kato saltis sur la tablon. – The cat jumped onto the table.
- La kato saltis sur la tablo. – The cat jumped around on the table.
The pronoun oni
The indefinite pronoun oni means
- people (in general)
- Oni manĝas. – People are eating.
- Oni sidas. – People are sitting.
The reflexive pronoun si
The pronoun si (accusative *sin) refers back to the subject of the clause:
- Li lavas sin. – He washes himself.
- Ŝi rigardas sin. – She looks at herself.
- Ili kantas al si. – They are singing to themselves.
si is used only in referring to a third-person subject. It is never itself the subject of a sentence. Compare:
- Mi rigardas min. – I look at myself.
- Ili rigardas sin. – They look at themselves.
The prefix re-
Like English "re-", it can mean either
- "again, a second time"
- or "back".
- revidi – to see again
- redoni – to give back
- remeti – to put back, to replace