4. Miaj leteroj

Numerals

The numerals are listed in the appendix. Higher numbers are formed by combining elementary numerals as follows:

  • 1 238 – mil du-cent tri-dek ok
  • 153 837 – cent kvin-dek tri mil ok-cent tri-dek sep
  • Addition: 8 + 3 = 11 – ok plus tri estas dek-unu
  • Subtraction: 15 - 6 = 9 – dek-kvin minus ses estas naŭ

Accusative of Motion Towards

Esperanto prepositions are normally followed by the nominative case:

  • post mi – after me
  • sen ŝi – without her
  • en domo – in a house

However, prepositions describing place may be followed by an accusative to show motion toward, e.g.

  • Mi iras en la domon. – I am going into the house.
  • (Compare: Ili manĝas en la domo. – They are eating in the house.)

Another example:

  • La kato saltis sur la tablon. – The cat jumped onto the table.
  • La kato saltis sur la tablo. – The cat jumped around on the table.

The pronoun oni

The indefinite pronoun oni means

  • people (in general
  • they
  • you.

Examples:

  • Oni manĝas. – People are eating.
  • Oni sidas. – People are sitting.

Th reflexive pronoun si

The pronoun si (accusative *sin) refers back to the subject of the clause:

  • himself
  • herself
  • itself
  • themselves
  • oneself

Examples:

  • Li lavas sin. – He washes himself.
  • Ŝi rigardas sin. – She looks at herself.
  • Ili kantas al si. – They are singing to themselves.

si is used only in referring to a third-person subject. It is never itself the subject of a sentence. Compare:

  • Mi rigardas min. – I look at myself.
  • Ili rigardas sin. – They look at themselves.

The prefix re-

Like English "re-", it can mean either

  • "again, a second time"
  • or "back".

Examples:

  • revidi – to see again
  • redoni – to give back
  • remeti – to put back, to replace